Consider These

Search Engine / Web Directory Glossary

Above the Fold - Traditionally used to describe the top portion of a newspaper, or the part of the newspaper that would be visible if folded over, in email or online marketing, above the fold refers to the area of a website's content that can be viewed without having to scroll the page.

Absolute Link - An absolute link is one that shows the complete URL of the page that is being being linked to, rather than a relative link path. Because of canonicalization and hijacking issues, absolute links are generally preferred over relative links.

Access (Microsoft Acess) - Microsoft Access is a database system developed by Microsoft, as part of Microsoft Office Professional. It is mostly used on low-traffic websites running on the Windows platform.

Active - The status of a listing or category included in the database when it is visible or active within the web directory.

ActiveX - A programming interface (API) that permits web browsers to download and execute Windows programs.

Admin - Administrator; the person or persons responsible for the operation and maintenance of web directory or forum.

Admin Listing - An admin listing (admin addition) in a web directory is a listing that has been added to the directory by an owner, manager, or editor rather than through the submission from a third party. Admin (administrative) listings are sometimes known as editorial listings or as staff listings. They might also be viewed as free listings, as no payment was required.

Admin Panel - The back-end interface used to update and maintain the directory categories, listings and features.

AdSense - Google AdSense is a product offered by Google, whereby webmasters who sign up for a Google AdSense account can post a brief code into their website which, when published, will offer up targeted advertisements, for which the webmaster earns money every time a site visitor clicks on an ad, whether or not a purchase is made. Google maintains an aggressive algorithm designed at catching webmasters who may be tempted to cheat the system, and is known to ban webmasters from the Google AdSense program.

Adult - Refers to adult-oriented, or pornographic content. In the case of a web directory, an adult category will list links to sites with adult content.

AdWords - Google Adwords is the other side of Google AdSense. A chief advertising product of Google, AdWords offers a pay-per-click, bidding system, that is used by businesses and webmasters to advertise their website on targeted websites carrying the Google AdSense code, as well as in Google's search engine results. Google AdWords text advertisements are short, consisting of a headline of no more than 25 characters and an additional 35 character advertising text. Image ads are also available.

Affiliate Marketing - Affiliate marketing programs allow online merchants to increase their market reach by paying webmasters, or others, on a cost-per-action basis, where affiliates are paid only when visitors complete an action. Generally, niche affiliate websites earn more money per unit than more general sites because they are more focused, and enjoy a higher conversion rate.

Affiliate Program - In an affiliate program, a reseller pays for performance program offering compensation for the referral of customers to a merchants web site. See Affiliate Marketing.

Affiliate Sites - An affiliate website is one that is designed to earn commissioned income through the redirection of visitors to another site through affiliate links. Web directory professional often refer to websites that have very little content other than affiliate advertising as an affiliate site.

Aggregator - An aggregator is a website that gathers or aggregates content from multiple sources for display on its own site, usually through the use of automated software. Examples of an aggregator are sites that display census and demographic information.

AJAX - An acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, which is used to create interactive applications, typically used for category selection drop down menus on web directory submission forms.

Alexa - Owned by, Alexa is a search service that measures website traffic via its toolbar.

Alexa Rank - Part of Alexa Internet's site information compiled from users of the Alexa Toolbar to gauge a web site's traffic. Alexa's ratings are biased toward sites that are focused on marketing and webmaster communities, offering results that are not generally considered accurate, but which are nevertheless one of the tools used in search engine optimization campaigns. Webmaster or SEOs are able to influence their Alexa Traffic Results (or that of their clients) by installing the Alexa Toolbar on their own browser and visiting their own website often, or even by refreshing the page, either manually or through automatic means.

Alt Attribute - Designed for the convenience of blind people, the alt attribute offers a textural description of images used on a webpage, as screen readers can access it. The alt attribute is one of the variables that may be used by search engines to determine the nature of images used on a website.

Alt Text - See Alt Attribute, above.

Amaya - Amaya is an open-source web browser editor from W3C. - is the largest online retailer, and one of the more popular affiliate marketers, although refers to its affiliates as associates. also owns several other popular sites, including Alexa, the Internet Archive, and the Internet Movie Database (IMDB).

Analytics - Analytics refers to software that is used to assist webmasters in tracking site statistics, such as the number of page views, user paths, conversion statistics, etc.

Anchor Text - Anchor text refers to the text used in a hyperlink pointing to a web site. This is the text that a user would click on in order to follow a link. The anchor is the starting point or ending point of a hyperlink. Search engine algorithms often make the assumption that a website or webpage is authoritative due to the words that people use in links directing users to a site. When links occur naturally, they might be expected to have a variety of anchor text combinations. When anchor texts from different websites use the same anchor text, search engines may consider this to be evidence of search engine manipulation, and thus discount or filter the benefits that might otherwise be received from the backlink.

Animation - Animation refers to a set of pictures or images that simulate movement when presented in a series.

Annual Listing - An annual listing is a term limited listing lasting for the duration of one calendar year subject to review and possibly a recurring fee prior to renewal. Web directories often offer site submission fees based on an annual listing; if not renewed, the site listing would automatically become inactive after that period of time.

Anonymous FTP - A method of downloading files from an FTP server without using a login account.

Antivirus Program - An antivirus program is a computer program that is used to detect, isolate and/or destroy computer viruses.

API - An acronym for Application Program Interface, which is a series of routines that are used to access software functions. Search products generally include API programs.

@Link - Also known as symlinks, in a web directory, an @Link (at-link) tag is used to create a link to categories that could serve as subcategories of the current category, and are used as a means of avoiding the creation of duplicate categories, and are often distinguished with the @ symbol at the end of the category name. @Links are generally mixed in with genuine subcategories.

@Link Farm - In a web directory, an @Link Farm is a term that is applied to categories that contain nothing but @Links to another part of the directory.

Authority - Authority refers to the ability of a website domain, subdomain or subpage to rank well in search engines. Factors that may be included are link equity, how long the site has been online, traffic trends, site history, and the existence of unique content of good quality. Search engines are constantly tweaking their algorithms in an attempt to balance relevancy algorithms based on topical or other authorities across the Internet, as determined by the search engine.

Auto Approved - Directory listings which appear live immediately upon submission and not subject to prior review.

Automated Bid Management Software - This refers to pay-per-click search engines, which generally only index websites that are participating in the program.

Automated Submission - This refers to the use of software to expedite the submission process to web directories. With an automated submission program (automatic approval), once the payment of a fee is made, the website listing would automatically appear in the directory pages.

Aviva Directory - A reputable web directory established in 2005.

Backlinks - A backlink is an incoming link, and a reference to other websites that link to a specific site. It is generally believed that search engine algorithms figure the number of backlinks that a site receives into its calculation of the site's reliability or popularity.

Backend - In a web directory, the backend  might refer to the administrative or staff section of the directory, which includes various administrative functions not available from the frontend or public side of the directory. Access to the backend requires a username and password.

Backup - This refers to a separate copy of a directory database that may be used to recover the directory in case of hardware or other failures.

Bad Link - See Broken Link

Bad Neighborhood - A bad neighborhood refers to websites that have been banned or severely downgraded by search engine algorithms. The general consensus is that it may be harmful for a site's standing in search engine results if the site is listed among sites that have been downgraded or banned. Pages that contain links to websites whose focus is on gambling, pornography, or Viagra might also be considered a bad neighborhood.

Bait and Switch - This refers to a marketing technique in which an offer is made to seem genuine, or as though it serves another purpose, in order to get people to trust it, to "vote for it" by linking to it or sharing it with acquaintances, only to switch its intent or purpose after it has gained authority with the search engines. Usually, it is easier to obtain quality backlinks for non-monetized, informational websites than for commercial ones, so new commercial sites are sometimes designed to look as though they were purely informational, only to become heavily monetized once the domain or page has achieved search engine authority.

Bandwidth - Bandwidth is a measure of speed, or amount of data, that can be sent through an Internet connection. The more bandwidth, the faster the connection.

Banner Ad - A banner ad is an advertisement (usually graphic) that is placed on a web page, which acts as a hyperlink to the advertiser's website.

Banner Blindness - Due to the wide use of advertising banners and other graphic advertising on the Internet, many users have learned to ignore the most common ad types. Due to this, text ads are generally considered to be more successful, in part because they appear to be content.

BBS - Acronym for Bulletin Board System, which is (today) another name for online forum, or a web-based system for sharing discussions, files, or announcements. Prior to the Internet, a BBS was a computer system running software that allowed users to connect and login to their system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the BBS served much the same purpose as the web forums of today, as well as offering games and other features. Originally bulletin board systems were accessed over a telephone line but, by the early 1990s, some were permitting access through Telnet. Some of the original-type BBS's are still in operation today.

Behavioral Targeting - Behavorial targeting refers to targeting advertising that is based on past experience or on implied intent. Both Google and use behavioral targeting frequently in its Adsense advertising, where displayed advertisements often relate to recent searches that the user has made rather than to the content of the webpage on which the ad is displayed.

Bias - In general terms, bias refers to a prejudice based on past experiences or a particular worldview. For the purposes of search engine optimization, search engines strive to deliver results that are relevant to their users, but they also need to be profitable. As search engines sell commercial advertising, they sometimes bias their organic search results toward informational or non-commercial websites, increasing the likelihood that a user will click on a paid advertisement targeted for the same search terms. Some search engines are also biased toward information that has been published online for a long period of time, and is heavily cited. Another technique that is used by search engines is search personalization, which biases search results based on our own media consumption and past searches, as well as toward giving preference to websites that are local to the searcher.

Bid Directory - A bid directory is a web directory where the amount paid determines the prominence of the listing within the category with the highest bidders featured on the main page.

Bidding - Bidding refers to increasing the amount paid to a bid directory in order to gain better placement in a category or on a prominent page of the directory.

Bing - Previously known as Live Search, Windows Live Search, and MSN Search, Bing is a search engine owned by Microsoft. Bing is generally considered to be the biggest competitor to Google in search engine results.

Bing Webmaster Tools - Based on Google Webmaster Tools, the Bing service provides similar information and tools to webmaster, as they relate to searches on Bing's search engine. Bing Webmaster Tools is allows webmasters to add their websites to the Bing web crawler, as well as offering tools for webmasters to troubleshoot the crawling and indexing of their website, the creation and submission of a sitemap, as well as ping tools. Website statistics and consolidation of content submission can be performed within Bing Webmaster Tools.

Black Hat SEO - Search engines develop guidelines, within which specific marketing techniques are considered, by the search engine, to be deceptive in nature. The term generally is used to refer to search engine optimizers or webmasters who use such techniques, which are sometimes successful, as black hat SEO. Search engine guidelines are not static rules however, so techniques that may be deemed to be legitimate one day may well be considered deceptive the next, and often without notice. Search engine optimization often involves carefully walking the line between what is acceptable and that which is not, and some of the best SEOs have been those who have tested the search engine algorithms in order to determine how they work.

Blocker - A website blocker is something that is designed to prevent search engines from accessing a website. A blocker can prevent a website from being spidered by search engines and, thus, from being included in the search engine index. Portions of a website that require a password for access will act as a blocker to search engine spiders.

Block Level Analysis - Block level analysis is a method that is used to break a webpage down into smaller blocks in order to determine whether its content is specific to the page or whether it is part of the site's navigation. The process can also be used to determine whether a link is a natural editorial link, which other links it should be associated with, and whether it is an ad, since search engine algorithms are designed so as to not count advertisements as endorsements, or votes.

Blog - Short for weblog, a blog is a frequently updated journal published on the web. Generally, blogs are formatted in reverse chronological order, in which more recent entries appear at the top of the page, while older entries move downward. Many blogs archive and categorize information, and also provide an RSS feed, as well as allowing for user comment on blog entries. Although there are others, common blogging platforms are Wordpress and Blogger.

Blogger - A blogger is a person who maintains a blog. Blogger is also the name of a common blogging platform.

Blogging - Blogging is the act of adding content to a blog.

Blogroll - A blogroll is a link list found on a blog, usually pointing to other blogs that are owned or operated by the same company, or by friends of the blogger. Sometimes blogrolls point to other blogs whose subjects are similar.

Bold - Bold is a way in which to make words appear in a bolder font on a webpage. Words that are bold are more likely to be viewed by human visitors to the site, and it is thought that search engine algorithms may give slightly more weight to words that are in bold than to regular text.

Bookmarks - Most web browsers permit the bookmarking of favorite pages, or ones to which the user might want to return. In the search engine industry, it has been discussed that search engines may one day utilize bookmarks as one of the variables used to determine search relevancy.

Boolean Search - Some search engines permit users to perform searches that include mathematical formulas such as AND, OR, or NOT. Some search engines use AND as a default, requiring search results to be relevant for all of the words in the query. A search for Widget Book will return results for Search AND Book. A search for "Widget Book" will return results for the phrase Widget Book. A search for Widget Book -Blue will return results containing Widget AND Book, but NOT Blue. A search for ~Widget -Widget will return results containing words that relate to Widget that do not contain the word Widget.

Bot - A bot is an abbreviation for robot, which are also known as spiders, crawlers, automatic indexers, and scutters.

BOTW - Acronym for Best of the Web, a popular, and one of the oldest web directories on the Internet.

Bounce Rate - Bounce rate refers to the percentage of visitors to a website who view only one page before leaving (bouncing out). This indicates either that the visitor experienced trouble on the webpage or that the content did not appear interesting.

Brand - A brand refers to the emotional response that is associated with a company or product. A brand is developed through the control of customer expectations and by social interactions between customers.

Branded Keywords - A branded keyword is one that is closely associated with a brand. Branded keywords generally occur late in the buying cycle and include some of the highest valued and highest converting keywords. Many affiliate marketing programs do not allow their affiliates to bid on keywords that are related to the core brand, while others actively discourage it.

Breadcrumb Navigation - This is a navigational method that is used to assist search engines and human site visitors in being able to understand the relationships between subpages and subsections of a website. Often used in web directory navigation, a breadcrumb navigation might appear like this: Top > Regional > North America > United States. In breadcrumb navigation, typically the page that a user is on is unlinked, while the pages above it in the site structure are linked, and may be clicked on in order to return to categories (pages) higher in the site structure.

Broken Link - When a website links to another website, image, or some other resource, and that link does not work, for any reason, that is considered to be a broken link. A broken link, a bad link, and a defective link are the same thing. A broken link is one that leads to a 404 error page or generates another type of error. Causes for broken links might include programming or coding errors, server problems, or those related to failing to renew a domain or pay a hosting fee. Broken links diminish the quality of a website, and it is believed that broken links may hurt a website's standing in search results, particularly if the website is a directory.

Browse - Browsing refers to the casual or random exploration of web sites or pages. This is also tthe method used to navigate a directory by clicking through its category structure rather than entering information into its search field.

Browser - A browser is a program that allows users to navigate the Internet, view web pages or retrieve information. Although many others are available, some common web browsers include Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Opera and Safari.

Bulk Submission -A bulk submission refers to the submission of multiple web sites to a web directory by a single person or entity, often submitted via a text or XML file and added by the editorial staff. Generally, a reduction in the submission fee is offered by web directory owners for bulk submissions.

Bulletin Board System - Today, a BBS is another name for online forum, or a web-based system for sharing discussions, files, or announcements. Prior to the Internet, a BBS was a computer system running software that allowed users to connect and login to their system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the BBS served much the same purpose as the web forums of today, as well as offering games and other features. Originally bulletin board systems were accessed over a telephone line but, by the early 1990s, some were permitting access through Telnet. Some of the original-type BBS's are still in operation today.

Business Directory - A business directory is similar to an online version of the Yellow Pages, although some business directories will include only those businesses that have websites. Business directories generally contain an alphabetical list of companies, categorized by industry. For business websites, an entry in a business directory may be an important consideration.

Cache - A cache is a stored copy of previously accessed web documents, usually presented by a search engine in case the original page is unavailable. When you are searching the Web, you are not actively searching the entire Web, but files contained in the search engine's index.

Canonical URL - Content management systems are often configured with errors that can cause duplicate or similar content to be indexed under multiple URLs. Additionally, webmasters will sometimes use inconsistent link structures within their website, and this can also cause the duplicate content to be indexed under multiple URLs. The canonical version of a URL is the single most authoritative version that is indexed by the search engine. Search engines generally use page rank, age, or other measures to determine which version of a URL is the canonical URL. When linking to the root level of a site or folder index, it is best to end the link location with a forward slash rather than using the index.html or default.asp filename in the URL.

Captcha - A Captcha is a challenge response test on the submission form that is used to verify that the response is not auto generated. A Captcha may be numeric or alphabetic code, or even an image.

Case Sensitive - Case sensitive is a term used to describe whether or not it is important to use upper or lower case letters. When entering characters into a Captcha, sometimes they are case sensitive, while at other times they are not.

Categorization - Categorization refers to the grouping or dividing of listings into separate classes or categories based on subject.

Category - A category holds collections of listings and categories grouped by topical similarity. Categories are generally used in web directories to separate site listings according to topic, geographical location, or by some other variable.

Category Count - The category count shows the number of subcategories and listings for each category in a web directory, usually displaying this information next to the category name in parentheses.

Category Description - The category description provides information about the topic and purpose of the category. Many web directories severely limit the number of characters allowed in a category description, while others require a minimum number of characters in order to use the category description as content or spider food.

Category Dump - This refers to a pre-made category structure database in the form of a text file used to create a category database.

Category Structure - The category structure is a hierarchical structure grouping topics based on similarities. Many web directories utilize a category structure that is identical or very similar to that used by the Open Directory Project, while others have opted to use a unique category structure.

CGI - CGI is an acronym for Common Gateway Interface. CGI is the interface software linking a web server and other machines or software that are running on that server. Some CGI programs are used to add interactive features to a website.

Chrome - Google Chrome is a web browser available in both PC and Mac formats.

Churn - Churn refers to the process that a search engine goes through while changes are made to its results due to content or algorithmic factors.

Click - In reference to a computer, a click is a quick mouse press on an executable file or, on the web, a hyperlink element on a webpage, that creates an event, such as opening a file or program, or taking the visitor to another web page or another part of the same page.

Clickthrough Rate - A clickthrough rate refers to the number of times visitors to a website or search engine click on a hyperlink or advertisement on a page, or a percentage of the number of times the page has been displayed.

Cloaking - Cloaking refers to the use of some technique or method to give search engine spiders the impression that a website contains content different than what a human user would see if he were visiting the site. Notably, cloaked websites will contain text that has been optimized for the search engines. Cloaking is a violation of search engine guidelines and, when detected, the website is open to being banned or otherwise penalized in the search engine results, and may even be removed from the index altogether.

Cloud Computing - The technology of storing applications and data on the Internet rather than on a user's own computer is known as cloud computing.

Clustering - Most search engines will limit the search results from any one website to a specific number, and grouped together so that the search engine results are neat and orderly, as well as to encourage diversity among high-rated results. Clustering may also refer to the technique that allows search engines to group hubs and authorities on an specific topic together in order to show their relationships.

CMS - Acronym for Content Management System, which is a tool that is used to help make it easy to update and add information to a website. Blog software programs typically use CMS, which allows bloggers to add blog entries through their web browser.

Co-citation - In topical, authority-based search algorithms, links that appear near one another on a page may be deemed to be related to one another. In algorithms such as latent semantic indexing, words that appear near one another are often deemed to be related.

Cold Fusion - Cold Fusion is a web development software, by Adobe, that can be used on most platforms including Linux, Unix, Solaris, and Windows. The programming language used with Cold Fusion is often referred to as ColdFusion, but it is more accurately known as CFML.

Comments - Many blogs and other content management systems allow readers to leave user feedback. Online newspaper publications often allow comments on published news articles.

Comments Tag - Website designers will sometimes insert comments tags within the HTML code of websites they are creating, usually for the purpose of making subsequent editing easier for subsequent editing by website owners or others who may be less familiar with web design or creation. Comments tags may be viewed when someone is viewing the raw HTML code but is not visible when viewing the webpage through a browser. Within the code, they will appear like this: <!-- your comment here -->. Comments tags could once be used as a way of stuffing invisible keywords into a document to increase the webpage's keyword density but search engine technology has gone beyond that, and this no longer works, and may even be viewed as spam by search engine algorithms.

Commercial - Engaged in commerce or commercial enterprise for the purpose of monetary gain.

Competition - In the world of search engine optimization, the competition is any other website that is competing with another to appear in search engine results using the same search terms. When you enter search words and phrases into a search engine, other websites that appear above or just below your own in the search engine results are the competition, even if they are in a different business than your own.

Computer Virus - A computer virus is a program that has the ability to replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. Many viruses have the potential of causing harm to infected computers but this is not necessarily the case for it to be considered a virus.

Conceptual Links - A conceptual link is one in which search engines try to understand to a level beyond the words that are contained in them. For example, some search engines are attempting to determine the concept links as opposed to simply matching the words of the text to that specific word set. Some search engine algorithms may even view cocitation and words near the link, rather than merely focusing on the anchor text.

Contextual Advertising - Contextual advertising is an advertising program that generates relevant advertisements based on the content of a webpage. Google Adsense is an example of a contextual advertising program.

Content - Content is the subject matter or information contained within a website. Unique content of a high quality not only gives human visitors a reason to read through the pages and subpages of a website, but it also gives them a reason to return or to refer others to the website. Unique content that relates to the keyword or phrases of a website may also be thought of as spider food, in that it encourages visits from search engine spiders, thereby increasing the likelihood that the website will turn up in search engine results.

Content Management System - A content management system is a computer system that permits the publishing, editing, or modification of the content of a webpage from a web browser. CMS is often used to manage workflow in a collaborative environment, or set up by webmasters in order to permit non-technical clients to make changes or updates to the content of a website without having access to the HTML code. CMS features vary widely from system to system, but the core function of content management systems is to present information on websites.

Conversion - In online marketing, a conversion is reached whenever a desired goal is completed. This goal may be a product sale, the clicking on a link, capturing an email, completing a survey, or having someone link to your website from their own. Many bid management, affiliate, and analytic programs can facilitate the tracking of conversion sources.

Cookie - A cookie is a small data file that is written to a user's machine, and used by the website that placed it there as a means of tracking the user. Cookies are used to help websites customize their experience, and to help affiliate program managers track conversions. Most cookies are not harmful.

Copyright - A copyright refers to the exclusive right given to the author of an original work. A copyright includes the right to publish and distribute the work.

CPA - An acronym for Cost Per Action, which measures the effectiveness of many forms of online advertising. Many affiliate marketing programs and contextual ads are structured on a cost-per-action basis. An action may be a click on advertisement, or it may refer to completing a form or purchasing a product.

CPC - Acronym for Cost Per Click. Many search advertisements and contextually targeted ads are sold in auctions, where the advertiser is charged a certain price per click. Google Adwords and Adsense are examples of CPC programs.

Crawl Depth - Crawl depth refers to how deeply a website is crawled and indexed. In order to enhance a website's chances of being found in a search, it is desirable to get most or all of a site indexed, so that deeper pages of the site have the ability to rank for relevant long-tail keywords. A very large site needs adequate site equity in order to be deeply indexed. Another problem that might prevent a site from being fully indexed is the presence of duplicate content.

Crawlers - Also known as a spider, a crawler is a program that search engines use to collect data from the Internet. When a crawler accesses a website, it collects the website's textual contents and stores it in a database. A crawler will also store all of the external and internal links to the website, and will later follow these links, eventually indexing every website that has links to at least one other website.

Crawl Frequency - Crawl frequency refers to how often a website is crawled by search engine crawlers, or spiders. Trusted or frequently updated websites tend to be crawled more frequently than those with low trust issues, and limited rank authority. Those with highly artificial link authority scores, or those which are heavy in duplicate content, may be crawled less often than those with unique content and which are well integrated into the web.

Crawl Page - A crawl page is a web document that consists entirely of links to other pages for the search engine spiders to follow. Spammers sometimes submit these to search engines.

CSS - Acronym for Cascading Style Sheets, which are a method used to add styles to web documents. External CSS makes it easy to change the design of many or all of the pages of a website by editing a single file.

CTR - An acronym for Clickthrough Rate, CTR refers to the percentage of people who click on an advertisement that they viewed. This a useful way to measure the relevancy of traffic sources or keywords. Search ads generally have a higher clickthrough rate than traditional banner ads, as they are more likely to be relevant to what the searcher is looking for.

Cybersquatting - This refers to registering domains that are related to other trademarks or brands in an attempt to cash in on the value created by the trademark or brand. This technique is not as successful as it once was, since larger companies are now more likely to turn to the court system.

Database - A database is a collection of information, or data, which is arranged in individual records and is retrievable.

Database Backup - Result of the process of copying a database to protect against loss in case of system, program or hardware failure.

Database System - A database system is a computer program, such as MS Access, Oracle or MySQL, used to manipulate datq in a databse.

Dead Link - A dead link is one that is no longer functional. Most large websites and directories can be expected to have some dead links, but the ratio of good links to dead ones may be used by search engines, and human visitors, as an indication of the quality of a website or directory.

Dedicated Server - A dedicated server is one that serves only a single website or a small collection of sites owned by the same person or company. Dedicated servers tend to be more reliable than shared (virtual) servers, but they also cost considerably more. Small to medium size websites or directories generally do well enough on a shared server.

Deeplink - A deeplink is a directory listing that features an individual page or sub-section from within a web site. When obtaining backlinks, it is often beneficial to request links to subpages of your website that are the most relevant to the page from which the link is obtained.

Deeplink Ratio - A deeplink ratio is the ratio of links pointing to internal pages to the overall links pointing to a website. A high deeplink ratio is often considered to be indicative of a legitimate (natural) link profile, and may reflect positively in search engine results.

Defective Link - When a website links to another website, image, or some other resource, and that link does not work, for any reason, that is considered to be a defective link. A broken link, a bad link, and a defective link are the same thing. A defective link is one that leads to a 404 error page or generates another type of error. Causes for defective links might include programming or coding errors, server problems, or those related to failing to renew a domain or pay a hosting fee. Broken links diminish the quality of a website, and it is believed that defective links may hurt a website's standing in search results, particularly if the website is a directory.

Delisting - In search engine parlance, delisting refers to being temporarily or permanently de-indexed from a search engine. Delisting may be due to any of a number of reasons. Pages on new websites, or sites with limited link authority, may be temporarily delisted until a search engine does a deep spidering and recache of the web. This may be noticed if you build a very large new site and put it all up at once; you may note that your site is in the search engine index one day, then gone the next. During some search engine updates, search engines often readjust their crawl priorities. In order to have a very large site well indexed, and to keep it indexed, a significant number of back links may be necessary. Duplicate content may result in the delisting of a website. Pages that have changed location, and not properly redirected, or pages that are down at the time that a search engine spider tries to crawl them, may result in a temporary delisting. Search engine spam detected on a website may result in a delisting of the site for a few days or even months after the problem has been fixed. Website owners are not notified when their site is delisted, and may not become aware of it until they notice a sudden drop in site traffic; then, sometimes they have to guess at the reasons for the delisting.

Demographics - Demographics refers to statistical data or the characteristics that define segments of a population. Some Internet platform, such as AdWords, allow advertisers to target ads at websites or searchers who fit a specific demographic, such as gender, age, income, education, location, and so on.

Description - Description is the content describing what a listed resource is about, generally referring to its main features. Directories and search engines provide a short description near each listing, the purpose of which is to add context to the title. Reputable web directories prefer descriptions that describe what the website is actually about, rather than overtly promotional language or keywording. Search engines sometimes use descriptions taken from the meta description found on the site, or they may attempt to extract a description from the page content, usually found at the top of the website's index page. When a website has been listed in a trusted web directory, search engines sometimes apply that description to a website's search engine results.

Details Page - A details page is a separate page that features a single listing from a web directory category. The information provided on a details page may vary from one directory to another, but may include an optional larger description, and perhaps page rank or other statistical data.

DHTML - Acronym for Dynamic HTML, which is an umbrella term used to describe a number of technologies that are used together to develop interactive or animated web pages by using a static markup language, such as CSS.

Directory - A directory, or a web directory, is a categorized catalog of websites, generally arranged into topical or geographical categories that have been determined by the editorial staff or owner of the web directory. Some web directories cater to niche topics, while others are general topic directories. In the past, the search engines have placed a great deal of weight on links from reputable web directories. This prominence has been threatened in recent years as junk directories have proliferated. Web directories that do not exercise editorial control over listings will not carry much weight with the web directories, nor will those will very little useful content. The future of web directories may depend on the ability of reputable directories to provide content beyond the selling of backlinks.

Directory of Directories - A directory of directories is a web directory (or a category of a general directory) whose focus is on listing other web directories, often categorized into various categories, such as general directories, regional directories, or niche directories; and they may also be subcategorized according to whether payment is required, or whether that payment is in the form of a bid for placement or whether a reciprocal link is required.

Directory Seeding - Web directories, both free and fee-based, often employ volunteer or paid staff who actively seek out and add useful websites to a directory in order to provide content to the directory, thus attracting human visitors and search engine spiders, and to encourage third-party submitters to submit their own website to the directory or directory category, as few people will submit their website to an empty directory or subcategory. The more reputable directories are constantly seeding directory categories, not with the intent of adding every potential website to a category, but to include sufficient content so that a site visitor would be able to find something of use.

Discount Code - A code provided which when used provides for a discount over the published fee/price of submission. Generally time sensitive.

DMOZ - Acronym for, which was an early web address for the Open Directory Project. The largest volunteer-driven web directory, the Open Directory Project is often known as the ODP. Founded by Rich Skrenta and Bob Truel in 1998, while both were employed by Sun Microsystems, the directory was first known as Gnuhoo, and its original category structure was based on the structure of Usenet newsgroups. After an objection was made about its use of "Gnu" by the Free Software Foundation, its name was changed to NewHoo, after which Yahoo objected to it use of "Hoo" in the name, prompting another name change. ZURL was proposed as a name, but the directory was acquired by Netscape before the name change could take effect, and it became the Open Directory Project. The ODP is still in existence, although there are frequent complaints that new submissions are never approved, and it can be noted that many of its categories have not been updated for as long as five or six years.

DNS - Acronym for Domain Name Server, or Domain Name System, which is a naming scheme mechanism used to help resolve a domain name, or host name to a specific TCP or IP address.

Domain - A domain is a scheme that is used for the logical or location organization of the World Wide Web. The word is more commonly used to refer to a specific website. For example, the domain of this site is (with .org being the domain extension), while the directory of directories on this domain resides in a subdomain,

Domain Name - See above. A domain name is the name that identifies a website, such as

Domain Popularity - Domain popularity relates to the number of incoming links (backlinks) from other domains that refer back to a website. Search engine spiders will generally count only one backlink per domain, so multiple links to the same website will usually have no effect in the search engine results. However, links to different pages of the site may have some benefit.

Doorway Page - A doorway page is a webpage that has been designed to rank high in the search engine results that leads visitors to another site or page. Typically, a doorway page will itself contain little or no advertisement, but be designed to redirect searchers to another page with advertisements. Some web masters cloak thousands of doorway pages on trusted domains, a maneuver that may work for a time before they are caught by search engine algorithms and delisted. When a page has a unique purpose beyond trying to trick a search engine, then the search engines are generally okay with it, but when its only existence is to bring search traffic to another page, search engine algorithms are designed to seek and delist such pages. An informational page that links to a storefront is not considered a doorway page.

Download - Download refers to the transfer of a file from a remote computer to a local computer, often from a web server to the client's computer.

Duplicate Content - Duplicate content is that which can also be found on other domains. When two or more domains have the same content, the results can be harmful for a website's placement in search engine results. There is some consideration that the search engines will be able to determine which of the sites had published the content first, which might leave that site in the clear, while penalizing the others. Websites are sometimes unfairly penalized by (non-human) search engine spiders that cannot recognize the difference between a potentially useful printer-friendly page and duplicate content. For that reason, it is good practice to place printer-friendly pages behind a nofollow link.

Dynamic Content - Content that changes over time may be considered dynamic content. More frequently, dynamic content refers to the use of a dynamic language, such as PHP, to help render a page on a website. In the past, search engine spiders were unable to properly render dynamic content. They have greatly improved their ability to index dynamic content in recent years, but it is considered preferable to use URL rewriting in order to make dynamic content appear to be static in nature.

Dynamic IP - Dynamic IP is an IP address that changes each time you connect to the Internet.

Dynamic Language - A dynamic language is one that is used to help build webpages on the fly, through an Internet browser. PHP and ASP are examples of dynamic content languages. Initially used primarily in blog software, content management systems (CMS) are often built into the framework of static webpages today, allowing even non-technical people to make changes to the website without interfering with the HTML code.

Earnings Per Click - Some contextual advertising publishers estimate potential earnings based on how much they earn from each click.

eDirectory - eDirectory is a PHP-based web directory software.

Edit - In respect to a web directory, an edit is an act of adding, modifying, deleting or updating directory categories and listings. Some web directories pay professional directory editors according to the number of edits they make to the directory, while volunteer-driven directories often track the number of edits made by volunteer edits, and may reward or publicly acknowledge high-volume editors in some manner from time to time. An edit may be the addition of a new listing, a modification to an existing listing, the movement of a listing from one category to another, modifications to a category description, or other tasks performed within the directory.

Editor - An editor is a person who performs the duties associated with the growth and maintenance of a web directory. Editors may be full- or part-time directory staff, contract labor, or volunteers of the directory. Serving as a volunteer for a reputable web directory is a useful way to learn about the backend of the industry, and may also serve as a means of making valuable contacts.

Editor Abuse - In a web directory, editor abuse generally refers to actions of an editor that are intended to manipulate directory listings in favor of his or her own website. Editor abuse may also involve other unethical actions taken by an editor, such as accepting payment from outside parties to add listings to the directory, or to modify existing listings.

Editor Bias - Editor bias, in a web directory, refers to various prejudices that some editors have toward specific types of listings or practices. Editors may or not be aware of editorial biases they may hold. For example, in the early days of the Open Directory Project, there was a strong bias against commercial websites, to the point where a heated discussion took place in their internal forums over the listing of websites that carried affiliate links. On a personal note, I will admit to a bias in favor of the use of full sentences and long site descriptions, although sentence fragments have become the standard in web directories. Editor bias is not necessarily a bad thing, but directory editors should be aware of their own biases and be able to recognize them in another.

Editorial Addition - An editorial addition (editorial listing) to a web directory is a listing that has been added to the directory by an editor rather than through the submission from a third party. Editorial additions are sometimes known as admin listings, for administrative listings, or as staff listings.

Editorial Integrity - Editorial integrity is the act of applying the same set of principles and standards on a consistent basis.

E-mail - E-mail (email,) refers to electronic mail sent from one person to another over the Internet. response is not auto generated. A Captcha may be numeric or alphabetic

E-mail Address - An e-mail address is the address that is used in sending emails from one person to another over the Internet. The format is usually

Email Confirmation - Often used with registering or an account on an online forum, blog, or web directory, an email confirmation is a message sent to the submitted email address to confirm the validity of such address in an effort to reduce the amount of spam and automated submissions. Unconfirmed submissions are generally deleted.

Emphasis - Emphasis is an HTML tag that is used to emphasize text. With respect to search engine optimization, it should be noted that it is more important that website content read well to the human who visit your site than any boost you may think emphasis will give you in search engine results. If every occurrence of a keyword is in emphasis, the page will be difficult to read, and this is just the sort of manipulation that search engine algorithms are likely to catch anyhow.

Empty Category - An empty category is a category or subcategory on a web directory that is devoid of content or listings.

Encryption - Encryption refers to a technology used to convert data from it original form to another that can be only be read by someone who can reverse the process. Encryption is used in an attempt to ensure the privacy of the message.

Entry Page - The entry page is the page in which a user enters your site. Often, this is the main (index) page of the site, but frequently it may be a subpage. When you are buying pay-per-click advertisements, it is important to direct visitors to the most appropriate and targeted page that is associated with the keyword that have searched for. When you are doing link building, you should point links to your most appropriate page whenever possible. This will help give page rank to your subpages, and it will also ensure that anyone who clicks on a link will be presented with the most appropriate and relevant content of your website. A significant part of a search engine optimization strategy is to look through your statistics for the purpose of viewing the most common entry pages that visitors are using to access your website.

eSyndiCat - Fee based PHP based web directory script/software from Intelliants, LLC.

Everflux - Search engine indexes are constantly updating, and Google refers to this continuous refreshing as everflux. At one time, Google updated its index once a month. At this time, these updates were known as Google Dances. Today, rather than major monthly updates, the major search engines are constantly updated their data, and frequently tweaking their algorithms.

Expiration Date - This may refer to the date on which a domain name must be renewed. Policies differ between domain registrars, but expired domains are eventually made available to be registered in the common market.

Express Inclusion - As it relates to web directories, express inclusion is a submission option providing an expedited review of a submitted resource within a shorter period of time than normal submissions. Express inclusion is usually associated with the payment of a fee.

External Link - An external link is one that references a page on another domain. Linking to other domains is a good way to help search engines understand what your site is about. However, if you link to a large number of low quality sites, or if the links pointing to your website are primarily of low quality, search engines may not rank your website highly. Search engines are more likely to trust high quality editorial links, both to and from your website.

Family-Friendly - With respect to a web directory, a family-friendly directory is one containing listings suitable for visitors and users of all ages, and which does not link to pornographic or other content intended for mature audiences.

Favicon - Also known as a favorites icon, a favicon is a small icon that appears next to URLs in a web browser. In order to have your website associated with a specific favicon, you would upload it to the root directory of your website.

Featured Listing - A featured listing is a site listing within a web directory that is usually placed above the standard listings, or otherwise set apart. Featured listings generally require a higher fee than that of standard listings.

Fee-Based - In respect to web directories, a fee-based directory is one whose submissions are subject to a fee for review or inclusion. These are often known as paid directories.

Feed - Several content management systems, such as blogs and forums, allow readers to subscribe to content update notifications through RSS or XML feeds. The term can also be applied to pay-per-click syndicated feeds, or merchant product feeds. Merchant product feeds have become less effective as a way of content generation in recent years due to improved duplicate content filters used by search engines.

Feedback - Feedback refers to a request for comments from users of a website, web directory, search engine, or other online service.

Feed Reader - A feed reader is a software or website that is used to feed update notifications.

FFA - In web parlance, FFA is an acronym for a free-for-all directory. See below.

Filter - Some web activities or signatures can make a page or website appear unnatural, and may prompt search engines to filter or remove them from the search results. As examples, if a site publishes a large amount of duplicate content, it may get a reduced crawl priority or be filtered out of the search results. Some search engines also have filters that are based on link quality, link growth, rate, and anchor text. Some pages are penalized for various activities known as search engine spamming.

Firefox - Firefox is a popular open source web browser.

Flash - Flash is a vector-based animation software that makes it easier to make websites look rich and interactive in nature. Although improvements have been made in recent years, search engines tend to have trouble indexing and ranking flash websites, as they are viewed by search engines as having little relevant content. For a more effective search engine optimization strategy, if used, flash should be embedded within HTML pages or a no embed element should be used to describe what is in the flash presentation. Flash content may also be published in multiple separate files that allow appropriate flash content to be embedded in relevant pages.

Forward Link - Also known as an outbound link, a forward link is one that points at another external website. Linking to relevant, related, documents is a good way to help search engines understand what your website is about. Referencing credible external resources will also help you build credibility and to leverage the work of others, rather than having to do everything yourself. Another consideration is that many web masters will track where their web traffic is coming from, and will be more likely to provide a relevant link to your own site.

Frame - Frames can be laid out in HTML code to create clear structures for a website's content. Frames are not much used any longer because search engines often encounter problems collecting usable data from framed sites. Also, the availability of server side includes, content management systems, and dynamic languages have reduced the reasons why anyone would want to use frames anymore.

Framed Redirect - A framed redirect is a webpage that displays one site's URL in the address bar, but displays the content of another site within a frame and without the visitors' knowledge.

Free-for-All - A free-for-all directory is one where anyone can submit any link without review or intervention, and where the link is generally included automatically. Free-for-all directories are not very popular, or as much in use, today as they once were, because they are easily identified by search engines and banned from their indexes. When not banned, free-for-all directories would usually be considered ban neighborhoods.

Free Listing - A free listing is a web directory listing offered without any form of payment or other consideration from the submitter. If not for the directory spam that they attract, many more directories would be likely be offering this avenue of submission. Submission fees are often instituted more for the purposes of excluding spam than in the interests of generating revenue. The term, free listing, is sometimes also used to refer to listings that were added to a fee-based directory by an owner, editor or staff of the directory for the purpose of directory seeding.

Fresh Content - Fresh content generally refers to the creation of new content for a website, which may be dynamic or static. Fresh content gives people a reason to pay attention to your website and to link to it. If more people are paying attention to your website, you and your website will gain credibility, among people and within the search engines. The existence of a large amount of good quality content on a website gives the site more chances to rank, and websites with a large amount of content are more likely to be crawled frequently. Webmasters often create their own content, but others may outsource content to content providers. As long as the content obtained from a content provider is original and not used on other websites, there is nothing wrong with outsourcing content.

FTP - Acronym for File Transfer Protocol, which is a protocol for transferring data between computers. Many content management systems, such as blogging platforms, include FTP capabilities, and web development software often includes FTP capabilities, allowing newly created or modified web content to be uploaded to the server without exiting the software. There are also a large number of free or inexpensive FTP programs available.

Fuzzy Search - Fuzzy search technology allows for the finding of matching terms when keywords are misspelled. Fuzzy search technology is similar to stemming technology, except that fuzzy search corrects the misspellings at the user end, while stemming searches for other versions of the same core word within the index.

Google - Google is a company offering a large number of products, one of its basic products being its popular search engine, as well as webmaster tools. Many webmasters report receiving as much as eighty percent of their website traffic from Google. Google search has become so popular, that "google" is often used as a verb.

Google Adsense - Google Adsense is a product offered by Google, whereby webmasters who sign up for a Google Adsense account can post a brief code into their website which, when published, will offer up targeted advertisements, for which the webmaster earns money every time a site visitor clicks on an ad, whether or not a purchase is made. Google maintains an aggressive algorithm designed at catching webmasters who may be tempted to cheat the system, and is known to ban webmasters from the Google Adsense program.

Google Adwords - Google Adwords is the other side of Google Adsense. A chief advertising product of Google, Adwords offers a pay-per-click, bidding system, that is used by businesses and webmasters to advertise their website on targeted websites carrying the Google Adsense code, as well as in Google's search engine results. Google Adwords text advertisements are short, consisting of a headline of no more than 25 characters and an additional 35 character advertising text. Image ads are also available.

Google Base - Google Base is a free database of semantically-structured information created by Google, which may help Google better understand which types of information are commercial in nature, and how the company can structure different vertical search products.

Google Bombing - Google bombing is a prank, using aggressive search engine optimization techniques, to cause a web page to have high ranking for searches on unrelated or off-topic keyword phrases, usually with comical results. Google's search engine algorithm ranks pages higher for a particular keyword if enough other pages linked to it use similar anchor text, so Google bombing efforts often involve persuading enough webmaster to temporarily add such anchor text to their webpages. Google does not look kindly upon Google bombing, and has made frequent changes in its algorithm to combat it.

Google Bowling - Google bowling involves efforts to knock a competitor out of the search results by pointing hundreds or thousands of low-quality links at their website. Generally, it is difficult to knock older, more established, sites out of the search results, while this technique can often be successful against newer, less established domains.

GoogleBot - Google's search engine spider is referred to as GoogleBot. Actually, Google uses a shared crawl cache between various spiders, including vertical search spiders and those associated with targeted ad placement.

Google Dance - In the past, Google performed major updates to its search engine index only about ever month or so. These updates wreaked temporary havoc with the search engine results, as its index fluctuated during this period. This became known as a Google Dance. In recent years, Google has moved to a constantly shifting index, and has discontinued its major monthly updates.

Google Keyword Tool - Provided by Google, the Google Keyword Tool is a keyword research tool that estimates the competition for a specific keyword, recommends related keywords, and suggests keywords that Google considers relevant to a webmaster's site or to subpage of the site.

Google Sitemaps - Google Sitemaps is a program available to web masters that can help ensure that Google will index the contents of their website.

Google Trends - Google Trends is a tool that allows one to see how Google search volumes for a specific keyword change over time.

Google Webmaster Tools - Google Webmaster Tools is a free service offered by Google that allows webmasters to check the indexing status, and to optimize the visibility of their site in Google's search engine index. Included are tools that allow webmasters to submit and check the validity of a sitemap, check and set the desired crawl rate, and view statistics about how Google views their website. Webmasters may use the tool to generate and check a robots.txt file, and to discover pages that may have been inadvertently blocked by their robots.txt. Internal and external pages that link to the site can be determined within the tools, as well as a list of broken links discovered by the GoogleBot. Webmasters can also discover which keyword searches on Google have led to the site being listed in the SERPs, as well as the click-through rates of such listings. Other statistics and errors are reported in Google Webmaster Tools.

Guidelines - In reference to web directories, guidelines are documents outlining the policies and criteria applied to the submission, acceptance and continued inclusion of a listing within a web directory.

Heading - Headings are an HTML element that briefly describes the subject of the section that it introduces. Heading elements range from H1 to H6, with the lower numbered headings being the most important. Only one H1 element should be used on any single webpage, although multiple other heading elements may be used to further structure the document. Heading elements may also be styled using CSS. At one time, heading elements were of high importance in search elements, and teh appropriate use of such elements still plays into the amount of importance or weight that a search engine will place on keywords that are found within a heading element of a page, although persistent abuse of such elements has led to their being of lesser importance today than they once were. When appropriate to the content of the page, they should still be used, however.

Hidden Text - Hidden text is an SEO technique use to display text to search engines that cannot be seen by human visitors. This used to be an effective tool in search engine optimization, but search engine algorithms have long been able to detect such a practice. Although the use of hidden text may work for a short while, the risk to reward ratio is far too high for this to be considered a valid technique.

Hijacked Domain - A hijacked domain is one that has expired, and been re-registered by someone other than the previous owner, for the purpose of taking advantage of the existing PageRank, inbound links and/or traffic.

Hijacking - Hijacking may refer to techniques used to trick a search engine into believing that another website exists at your URL. Typically, this is done through the use of 302 redirects or meta refreshes.

Hits - The number of hits received by a website was once an important statistic to measure, and this was a more valid measure of site traffic when websites were text-based in nature. When you click on a link to visit a website, or when you enter the URL of the site into the address bar of your browser, the browser sends a request to the website for that particular page. The page is sent across the Internet, where you can view it in your browser. That is known as a web page request. If the page that you requested contained nothing but text, that would be one item that the browser sent to you, and it would constitute one hit. However, if the website includes a graphic or a photograph, that image does not become one with the webpage; it remains separate from, but reference by, the webpage. So, the addition of even one graphic would mean that two pieces would be sent to your browser, and that would be two hits. Today, most webpages have far more than one image, particularly when you consider background images, navigation graphics, and the like, so one view, by one viewer, of a webpage, might accumulate dozens of hits. For this reason, hits are no longer considered an important web statistic.

Home Page - Ofter referred to as the index page, a home page is the main page of the website. Since a website may include several index pages, a home page would be the more accurate term for the main page of the site. The home page is largely responsible for helping to develop the brand, as well as setting up the navigational scheme that will be used to help users and search engines navigate the site's subpages. In search engine optimization, a home page is typically one of the easier pages to rank for a site's more competitive terms, mostly because it's easier to get backlinks to a site's home page. Therefore, it is very important that your home page remains focused, and that it reinforces your brand. You should also not assume that visitors to your site will always come to it through the home page. In a well-structured, established site, many of its subpages may be more popular and rank higher than the home page for relevant search queries.

.htaccess - An .htaccess file is an Apache directory-level configuration file that can be used to password protect or redirect files. Be careful with your .htaccess file; be sure to make a copy of it before editing it, and do not edit the .htaccess file of a site that you can't afford to have go down unless you know what you are doing.

HTML - Acronym for HyperText Markup Language, the HTML is the language in which pages on the World Wide Web are created. Some newer web pages are also formatted in XHTML.

HTTP - Acronym for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which is the most commonly used protocol to communicate between servers and web browsers. Hypertext transfer protocol is the means by which data is transferred from its residing location on a server to an active web browser.

Hyperlink - HTML code redirecting visitors from one web page to another web page when clicked on.

Inactive - The status of a listing or category when it is included in the database but not visible or active within the directory is deemed to be inactive. In a web directory, an inactive link might be one that no longer leads to a website, usually because he website is down for any of a number of reasons.

Inbound Link - An inbound link is one that points at one website from another. Most search engines allow you to see a sample of links pointing to a document by doing a search using the link:function. For example, entering would show pages linking to the homepage of this domain, although it will include both internal and inbound links. Due to canonical URL issues ( and, different linkage data might be presented. Google usually shows a much smaller sample of linkage data than some of the other search engines do, and that feature frequently does not work at all in Google.

Index - An index refers to a directory's database of categories and listings. To a search engine, an index is the database that contains information on all of the websites that the search engine was able to find. If a website's content is not in a search engine's index, users will not be able to find it using that search engine. Search engines regularly update their indexes.

Internal Link - An internal link is a link from one page of a website to another page of the same site. Generally, it is best to use descriptive internal linking, as this makes it easier for search engines to understand what a website is all about. Consistent navigational anchor text should be use for each section of a website, emphasizing other pages within that section. Links to relevant related pages should be placed within the content area of the site in order to help show the relationship between pages and to improve the usability of the website. Intuitive navigational links are also important for the humans who visit your site, as people will not often return to a site if it's too hard to find their way around it.

Information Architecture - Information architecture refers to designing, categorizing, organizing and structuring of content in a useful and meaningful way. Effective information architecture considers how human visitors to the site and search engine spiders will access a website. Good information architecture focuses each page on a specific topic, uses descriptive page titles and meta descriptions that describe the content of the page, uses clean and descriptive names for folders and files, uses headings to break up text and to semantically structure a document, uses breadcrumb navigation to show page relationships, and descriptive link anchor text, links to related information from within the content area of the webpages, improves conversion rates by making it easy for people to take desired actions, and avoids feeding search engines duplicate or near-duplicate content.

Internet - The Internet is the worldwide network of computers connected via TCP/IP.

Internet Explorer - Microsoft Internet Explorer is the web browser that comes packaged with Windows-based PCs.

Invisible Web - The invisible web refers to portions of the web which are not easily accessible to search engine spiders due to search technology limitations, copyright issues, or information architecture issues.

IP Address - Acronym for Internet Protocol Address. Every computer connected to the Internet has an IP address. Some websites and servers have unique IP addresses, but most web hosts host multiple websites on a single host. Search engine optimizers sometimes refer to unique C class IP addresses. Each site is hosted on a numerical address like In some cases, many sites are hosted on the same IP address. Many SEOs believe that if links come from different IP ranges, with a different number, then the link may count more than would links from the same local range and host, since many web hosts allow a single customer to host multiple domains on the same account, which may be used to provide backlinks to and from their own web domains. Google is adept at catching this and, while websites are not penalized for this practice, the Google algorithm does seem to reduce the importance of such links.

ISP - Acronym for Internet Service Provider. ISPs sell end users access to the Internet.


JavaScript - JavaScript is a client-side scripting language that can be embedded into HTML documents for the purpose of adding dynamic features. Search engines do not index most content in JavaScript. In AJAX, JavaScript has been combined with other technologies to make webpages more attractive.

JavaScript Link - A JavaScript link is one that is scripted and not usually indexed, followed or counted by the search engines, used to provide access to human visitors but not to search engines.

Keyword - Keywords or keyphrases are the primary words or phrases related to the content of the resource. A keyword is also known as a search term, which is what users of a search engine key into the search field when they are seeking something specific. Depending on who you are speaking to, sometimes a keyword will refer to a single search term, while a keyphrase is used to refer to multiple search words used together in a search, or a reference is made to keywords and phrases.

Keyword Density - Keyword density relates to how often a search term appears in the text of a webpage in relation to the total number of words that it contains. For example, if a keyword appears ten times in a hundred words of text, the keyword density would be ten percent. From a search engine perspective, a high keyword density may be indicative of search engine spam. Search engine optimization requires a delicate balance between using desired keywords enough times to be effective, but not so many as to be penalized, because if the keyword density is too high, the website many be downgraded by the search engines, causing it to appear lower in the search results. Generally speaking, if you are using a keyword so often that it sounds silly when you read it out loud, there is a good chance that the keyword density is too high.

Keyword Proximity - The keyword proximity refers to the distance between the search term's individual keywords, particularly when a search term is made up of a combination of keywords. Generally speaking, the shorter the distance between a search term's individual keywords, the more relevant it will be, from the perspective of a search engine. Consider a web site that contains the keywords that make up the search term, "Podunk widget manufacturer" in the heading, "Manufacturer of blue widgets in Podunk, Iowa." The search term proximity between "Podunk" and "widget" is one word, and between "manufacturer" and "Podunk" it is four words. The shorter the distance between a search term's individual keywords, the more relevant it will be from the perspective of a search engine.

Keyword Research - Keyword research describes the process of discovering relevant keywords and keyword phrases to focus SEO and PPC marketing campaigns on.

Keyword Stuffing - Keyword stuffing is related to keyword density. It refers to the over repetition of specific targeted words in listing titles and descriptions, often done when someone tries to manipulate their position in the search results through an over-concentration on relevant keywords. Don't be afraid to use your keywords, but if the same words follow one another too closely, a search engine may downgrade the website, causing it to appear lower in the search results.

Landing Page - A landing page is the one on which a site visitor arrives after clicking on a link or advertisement.

Lead Generators - Web sites whose primary purpose is to collect a visitor's information (leads) to be provided to a third party for servicing rather than providing the service or sale directly.

License - The agreement by which an owner of intellectual property permits and governs the use, performance, and/or sale of the intellectual property by another party is referred to as a license.

Link - Also known as a hyperlink, a link is a citation from one web document to another web document, or to another position in the same document. Search engines generally consider links to be votes of trust.

Link Baiting - Link baiting is the act of creating sections of a website or webpage that is intended to grab attention and to encourage others to create links pointing to that page. Link baiting is an acceptable and highly effected means of search engine optimization.

Link Building - Link building describes the ongoing process of building high quality linkage data that search engines will evaluate for the purpose of building up the authoritativeness, relevancy, and trustworthiness of the site. This may be done by building unique content that other webmasters will want to link to, and by creating viral marketing ideas that people will be interested in and talk about. Other techniques include mixing anchor text, obtaining good quality deep links, and making an effort to build at least a few high quality links before gathering a lot of low quality links. Except for those in bad neighborhoods, low quality links do not harm the position of a website, but neither do they help. Other link building efforts may include submitting the website to high quality web directories, such as the Open Directory Project, Yahoo!, GoGuides, Best of the Web, the Aviva Directory, and others. High quality editorial links are helpful, and it always helps if you can get mentions on blogs.

Link Bursts - A link burst is a rapid increase in the number of links that point to a specific website. Natural link accumulation develops over time, as people notice a valuable website and link to its contents or subpages. Popular articles may cause a website to receive many links in a short amount of time, but in those cases there are generally other signs of quality as well, such as increased usage data, an increase in brand-related search queries, traffic from the link sources, or many of the new links coming from newly created pages on trusted domains.

Link Churn - Link churn describes the rate in which a website loses links.

Link Farm - A link farm is a web directory that accepts any and all submissions regardless of relevance to the category submitted, titles or descriptions.

Link Hoarding - Link hoarding describes a technique designed to maintain all of a website's link popularity by not building outward links to other websites, or by linking out through the means of JavaScript, redirects, or nofollow attributes. Link hoarding is generally a bad idea because many websites that now enjoy high authority were once themselves hub sites that freely linked out to other relevant sources. Plus, if you are unwilling to link out to other sites, other sites are going to less likely to link to your site. Outbound links to relevant sources may increase the credibility of your website, thus boosting your overall relevancy scores.

Link Juice - Link juice refers to the amount of PageRank, anchor text and authority conferred to a document when hyperlinked.

Link Popularity - Link popularity relates to the number of backlinks that point to a given website. A backlink is a link that refers to the site in question. Unlike domain popularity, every backlink is counted separately. If there are five links to your website in a forum post, that would count as five backlinks. Although search engine algorithms change frequently, search engines currently seem to give greater weight to domain popularity, which also takes into account the quality of the backlinks. For this reason, a webmaster should concentrate more on getting high-quality backlinks than a high quantity of backlinks.

Link Reputation - Link reputation is the combination of link equity and anchor text.

Link Rot - Link rot describes the degradation of links within the directory as sites become unavailable over time and lead to 404, or page not found errors. Most large websites or web directories will have some broken links, but if too many of its links are broken, it is indicative of outdated content, which can be bad for the experience of human visitors and search engines alike.

Listing - In a web directory, a listing is the combined title, link and description of a website placed within a category.

Log Files - Log files are server files that show what the leading sources of traffic to a website are, and what people were searching for on the website. Log files generally do not show as much information as analytics programs would, nor are they formatted in such a manner as to be easy to read.

Long Tail Keyword - Long tail keywords are the longer, more specific keywords or phrases that are less common, individually, but which account for the majority of search-driven traffic. For example, a search on "blue widgets" would be considered a head term keyword, while a search for "blue widgets manufactured in Podunk, Idaho" would be a long tail keyword. When a website is displayed high in the search engine results on a long tail keyword, the likelihood is greater that the searcher will click on the link and visit the site. When the actual contents of the site is relevant to the keyword, there is a greater likelihood that the visitor will make a purchase, make contact, or complete whatever action the webmaster hopes for.

LSI - An acronym for Latent Semantic Indexing, LSI is a way for search systems to mathematically understand and represent language based on the similarity of pages and keyword co-occurance. Relevant results may not even include the search term, but are returned based solely on the fact that it contains many similar words to those appearing in relevant pages which contain the same search words.

Manual Review - As related to search engines, a manual review describes a process that is combined with its automated relevancy algorithms and designed to detect search spam, and to help train their relevancy algorithms. Abnormal usage data or link growth patterns may even flag websites for a manual review. As it may relate to a web directory, a manual review may describe a policy of human editors reviewing all site submissions prior to acceptance into the directory.

Meme - A meme is an idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture. As it pertains to the Internet, a meme is a concept that spreads rapidly, often through email or, more recently, over such social media as Facebook and YouTube.

Meta Description - Also known as a page description, a meta description is a short description of the content of an individual webpage that is laid down in HTML code, visible to search engines but not to human site visitors. Some search engines will display this content in their search results directly beneath the page title. When no meta description appears, the search engine will display other text from the page, which may or may not be truly descriptive of the page. Ideally, the meta page description should contain the search terms for which the webpage has been optimized. The importance of meta descriptions have been downplayed in recent years, and is currently not as important in search engine placement as it once was, but it is nevertheless good form to include an appropriate meta description.

Meta Keywords - Meta keywords can be added to the meta tags of an individual webpage's HTML code. The terms do not appear on the website, but are visible to search engine spiders, or crawlers. Meta keywords are intended to inform search engines as to the keywords or search terms for which the webpage has been optimized for, thus increasing the likelihood that the page will appear in the search engine results of a search on those terms. It is good form to include meta keywords, although many of the most important search engines, such as Google, no longer appear to consider a webpage's meta keywords when evaluating the results of a crawl.

Meta Refresh - A meta refresh is a meta tag that is used to make a browser refresh to another URL location. Generally, a 301 or 302 redirect is preferred over a meta refresh for the purposes of search engine optimization.

Meta Search - Sometimes referred to as one word (metasearch), a meta search engine is one that pulls top-ranked search results from multiple other search engines, and rearranges them into a new result set. Dogpile is one example of a meta search engine.

Meta Search Term - See Meta Keywords

Meta Tag - A meta tag is an area in the HTML code that contains information about a website or individual webpage. This information is not seen by human visitors to the page, but can be accessed by search engines.

Meta Title - Also known as a page title, a meta title is included in the HTML code of an individual webpage, and generally appears in the title bar of the web browser. Search engines display page titles in their search results, and may use meta titles in order to recognize what information the webpage contains. Ideally, meta titles should contain the keywords for which the page has been optimized.

MFA - Acronym for Made for AdSense, which refers to a website design that is primarily intended to earn revenue from advertising, rather than one that includes content.

Mindshare - Mindshare is the measure of the percentage of people who think of you or your product when they are thinking of products in your category. Websites with strong mindshare, top rankings, or a strong brand, are more likely to be linked to than sites that are less memorable, or which have less search exposure.

Mirror Site - A mirror site is one whose content is also featured on another web site, usually owned and operated by the same entity. Search engines frown on mirror sites, although they generally include the first site in their index, ignoring subsequent sites rather than penalizing the original site. Nevertheless, it is better to redirect domains to the original site than to mirror its content.

Misplaced Submission - A misplaced submission is one that has been made to an unrelated or incorrect category on a web directory. The policies of web directories will differ as to how they deal with misplaced submissions. Automated processes would likely not detect them, allowing them to be accepted into an inappropriate category. Other directories may have a policy of deleting misplaced submissions, or of moving them to an appropriate category.

Mod - A mod is an abbreviation for modification, which refers to a change made to the base script to provide additional features or functionality. Mods are frequently done on web directory scripts, forum software, and template-based websites.

Movable Type - Movable Type is a Perl-based open-source blogging software. Generally, Movable Type is more difficult to install than Wordpress.

Multiple Submissions - Submitting a site to more than one category of a web directory is referred to as a multiple submission. Some web directories allow this, while others do not. Generally, when a web directory has a policy against multiple listings of a site, its software settings do not permit a site to be submitted to more than one category.

MySQL - MySQL is an open source relational database platform/management system.

Natural Language Processing - This describes algorithms that attempt to understand the intent of a search query rather than simply matching results to keywords.

Navigation - Navigation is a structural and organizational scheme that helps website users know where they are on a website, where they have been, and how it relates to the rest of the website. Navigation is the way in which site visitors get from the main page of the site to its subpages. The use of regular HTML navigation is preferred over JavaScript navigation, flash, or other forms of navigation because it allows search engines to more easily index the contents of a website.

Niche - Niche refers to a topic or subject that is focused on a specific topic. In search engine optimization, it is generally easier to compete in small, new, or underdeveloped niches than attempting to dominate verticals. Often, a website will begin in a smaller market, growing or reaching out as it develops brand and authority.

Niche Directory - A niche web directory is one that has a focus on a specific topic or subject, generally based either on topical or geographical concerns.

Nofollow Attributes - A nofollow attribute is an HTML attribute added to a hyperlink which instructs search engines to not follow or pass any link juice (Page Rank, anchor text or authority) to the targeted URL. When a nofollow attribute is in place, the link will not be classed as a backlink for the linked website and, when nofollow backlinks are used exclusively, the linked website will not be included in the search engine index. Nofollow attributes will not improve a website's position in the search rankings. They are sometimes used to make sure that a search engine views the site's link-building structure to be natural. Nofollow links are frequently used in forums and blogs, where many entries and comments are published for the sole purpose of gaining new backlinks for a website.

Nonprofit - A nonprofit is a corporation or association chartered for other reasons other than profit-making activities.

Nonrefundable - In respect to web directories, a nonrefundable refers to a fee that is not subject to refund if a submission is rejected or declined for any reason. Normally, the payment of the fee is considered to be a payment for the time that it takes to review a submission rather than in payment for a listing in the directory. Reputable web directories do not ordinarily guarantee the inclusion of all paid submissions.

ODP - Acronym for Open Directory Project. See below.

Off-Page Optimization - Off-page optimization is a reference to steps that can be taken outside of the actual website in order to improve its position in search engine results. These measures may include obtaining as many good quality backlinks as possible.

On-Page Optimization - On-page optimization refers to steps that can be taken within the website to improve its position in search engine results. These may include optimizing the content to ensure the appropriate keyword density, or to add useful content to the website.

Ontology - The study of the categories of things that exist or may exist.

Open Directory Project - Also known by its acronym, ODP, or as DMOZ, which is an acronym for, which was an early web address for the Open Directory Project. The largest volunteer-driven web directory, the Open Directory Project is often known as the ODP. Founded by Rich Skrenta and Bob Truel in 1998, while both were employed by Sun Microsystems, the directory was first known as Gnuhoo, and its original category structure was based on the structure of Usenet newsgroups. After an objection was made about its use of "Gnu" by the Free Software Foundation, its name was changed to NewHoo, after which Yahoo objected to it use of "Hoo" in the name, prompting another name change. ZURL was proposed as a name, but the directory was acquired by Netscape before the name change could take effect, and it became the Open Directory Project. The ODP is still in existence, although there are frequent complaints that new submissions are never approved, and it can be noted that many of its categories have not been updated for as long as five or six years.

Open Directory RDF Dump - This is a downloadable copy of the Open Directory Project database for use by third parties.

Opera - Opera is a fast, standards-based web browser, but with often has trouble with dynamic content.

Organic Search Results - Search engine queries usually return both paid advertisements and unpaid listings. The unpaid listings that result on the basis of the search engine's indexing of the site are referred to as organic search results. Organic results are organized by relevancy, largely determined by linkage data, page content, usage data, and issues such as the age of the site and other trust-related data. Organic search results will often differ greatly from one search engine to another, and sometimes within the same search engine on different dates.

Outbound Link - Also known as a forward link, an outbound link is one that points at another external website. Linking to relevant, related, documents is a good way to help search engines understand what your website is about. Referencing credible external resources will also help you build credibility and to leverage the work of others, rather than having to do everything yourself. Another consideration is that many web masters will track where their web traffic is coming from, and will be more likely to provide a relevant link to your own site.

Page - A website is comprised of several webpages that are linked to one another, usually through a navigation bar or navigation links. Each page of a website can be individually optimized.

Page Content - The page content refers to all of the information that is contained on an individual webpage, and may be displayed as text, images, animation, video, or other online media. Because search engines have limited ability to recognize images, animation, video or audio, they use file names or alt atributes to determine the contents of such media. For this reason, it is important to include information in text form, so that it is accessible to search engines.

Page Description - More often known as a meta description, a page description is a short description of the content of an individual webpage that is laid down in HTML code, visible to search engines but not to human site visitors. Some search engines will display this content in their search results directly beneath the page title. When no meta description appears, the search engine will display other text from the page, which may or may not be truly descriptive of the page. Ideally, the meta page description should contain the search terms for which the webpage has been optimized. The importance of meta descriptions have been downplayed in recent years, and is currently not as important in search engine placement as it once was, but it is nevertheless good form to include an appropriate meta description.

Page Title - Also known as a meta title, the page title is included in the HTML code of an individual webpage, and generally appears in the title bar of the web browser. Search engines display page titles in their search results, and may use them in order to recognize what information the webpage contains. Ideally, meta titles should contain the keywords for which the page has been optimized.

Page Rank - Page Rank is Google's measure of the relative importance of a document or web page based on the importance of its inbound links. Beginning in 2009, Google has been deprecating the importance of page rank, although it continues to be a significant concern for webmasters.

Paid Inclusion - See Paid Listing below.

Paid Listing - In a web directory or other website, it is often possible for a webmaster or submission service to pay for placement of links to the website being promoted. It is also possible to pay a search engine for placement in certain search results. Generally, these paid listings do not appear in the natural search results, but are instead displayed within a section known as the sponsored results. Some search engines will display sponsored listings above natural search results, while others will display them to the side of the results page, more commonly the right side.

Pay for Performance - This is a payment structure where affiliated webmasters are paid a commission when site visitors perform certain actions, which may range from clicking on an advertisement to making a purchase.

Parent Category - The parent category is the top level or primary category of a web directory. The term may also be applied to subcategories that have (child) categories beneath them. For example, consider Top > Regional > North America > United States. In this example, the parent category of the directory is Top, but North America is the parent of United States, and Regional is the parent of United States.

Parked Domain - Domain parking refers to the registration of an Internet domain name without using it for services such as email or a website. Often this is done in order to reserve the domain for future use, or to protect against the possibility of cybersquatting, or to engage in cybersquatting. More often, the use of a parked domain is as a placeholder for an existing website.

Parked Page - A parked page is a (usually) temporary page or placeholder for future content, which often includes nothing but affiliate advertising.

PDF - Acronym for Portable Document Format, which is a file form standard for electronic documents developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated. PDF documents require a PDF reader in order to be read, but the reader may be downloaded for free, and often comes pre-installed on new computers.

Pending - In web directory parlance, pending refers to the status of a submission prior to review and disposition by an editor or admin.

Permanent Listing - A listing added to a directory without limitations on the length of the time a listing will appear in the directory.

Personal Page - Sometimes referred to as a "home page," a personal page is a web page created by or for an individual, as opposed to that of a business, organization or institution. Personal pages are often developed as a means of staying in touch with friends and family members. Social media, such as Facebook, has largely replaced personal pages today, although many remain. Because of the lack of general public interest, many web directories do not publish personal pages.

PHP - Originally an acronym for Personal Home Page, the term now stands for PHP Hypertext Processor, which is an open-source server-side scripting language that is used to render webpages or to add interactivity to them.

PHP Link Directory Script - This is a PHP-based web directory script from NetCreated.

Placement - Placement refers to the addition and eventual location of a website listing in a web directory.

Portal - A portal is a website that offers common consumer services, such as news, email, or other content, which often includes search.

PPC - The acronym stands for Pay Per Click, which is a pricing model used by many search ads and contextual ad programs. PPC ads only charge advertisers if a potential customer clicks on the ad, regardless of whether a purchase is made.

Privacy Policy - A privacy policy is a document disclosing the ways in which a website or web directory gathers, uses and manages a customer's data.

Proximity - Proximity is a measure of how close words are to one another. A webpage that has words near one another may be considered, by a search engine, to be more likely to satisfy a search query containing both terms than one in which the words are more separated.

qlWebDS Web Directory Script - qlWebDS is a web directory script using PHP and MySQL scripts.

Quality - In web directory parlance, quality is an adjective used to describe the degree of excellence or superiority of a directory. Quality may also be used to describe the nature of content found on a webpage or within a website.

Quality Link - Search engines count links as votes of trust. High quality links are given more weight than low quality links. High quality links may have the characteristics of being from a trusted source, being hard to get, from a site that has been on the Internet for a long time, those that are from websites with related content, and those that are found within the content area of a site, rather than within the advertising blocks.

Query - A query is the actual search string that a searcher enters into a search engine.

Quick Buck Crew - Someone who starts a web directory for the primary purpose of cashing in on the frenzy and potential income, but with no intention of operating or maintaining the directory once the initial interest and/or submissions subsides.

Rankings - Rankings refers to a website's position in search engine results. A site's ranking will depend on many variables, one of them being the search term that was entered into the search engine. Various factors may influence the position of a webpage in a search result; these may include the relevancy of the site's content to the search that is being made, the quality of the website's backlinks, and even how long the website has been on the Internet. Some search engines, such as Google, will determine the location of the searcher and present local results ahead of more distant ones. Search engine algorithms change frequently, and they vary from one search engine to another.

Reciprocal Listing - A reciprocal listing is one that is provided in exchange for a reciprocated link back to the directory or to that of a third party website. Search engine algorithms consider such links as being false and, while a website is unlikely to be banned or removed from the search engine index because of reciprocal listings, the weight of such links is limited. Links to and from two different websites will be given more consideration when the websites carry similar content, as the search engine may consider that these may be natural links. Web directories that offer free submissions in return for reciprocal links may be at risk.

Recurring Fee - A fee which must be paid on a regular basis, usually annually, as a condition of inclusion within a directory, is known as a recurring fee.

Redirect - A redirect is a setting which redirects users from one site or URL to another. Once considered a dangerous practice, as far as search engine optimization is concerned, redirects are often done for legitimate reasons, such as 301 redirects, which are used to notify human visitors and search engines of a permanent change of location, and 302 redirects, which indicate a temporary change of location. It does not appear that search engines will penalize a website for redirects as long as the reason for it is not manipulative.

Redirected Link - A redirected link is a scripted or other indirect link that is usually not indexable by the search engines.

Referrer - A referrer is the source from which a website visitor has come. This may be a search engine, a web directory, or another website which has provided a link to the website.

Regional Category - In a web directory a regional category features listings related to their geographical location and subject. Sometimes referred to by another name, many general web directories have regional categories, which may be quite extensive.

Registered User - A person who has registered and created an account in accordance with specified terms and conditions is a registered user of a web directory, forum, or other website, usually one where interaction is anticipated. Some web directories require that users are registered prior to allowing them to submit a web listing. In the case of newspaper or magazine sites, registered users may be asked to pay a subscription fee in order to access additional content hidden behind a password-protected area of the site.

Registrar - A registrar is a company through which domain names can be registered.

Reinclusion - When a website has been penalized for spamming or other reason, a search engine may remove the site from its index or from its search results. Depending on the severity of the infraction, search engines will sometimes re-include them in the index after a period of time, if the problem has been corrected. Search engines may have developed a means in which webmasters may request reinclusion, although this is less common. Reinclusion may also refer to a web directory returning a published listing to active status after it has been made inactive, either because the site was down or perhaps because an annual fee had not been paid.

Rejection - In a web directory, a rejection is the refusal to accept a submitted website listing, usually for non-compliance with the published guidelines, which may limit the types of sites that may be listed in the directory.

Relative Link - A relative link is one that shows the relation of the current URL to the URL of the page being linked at. Some links only show relative link paths rather than having the entire reference URL within an href tag. Due to canonicalization and hijacking concerns, it is best to use an absolute link.

Relevance - Relevance refers to the extent to which the content of the webpage matches the topic or subject being searched for, and is one of the factors that will affect the website's position in a search.

Relevancy - See Relevance above.

Renewal Date - The date on which a listing needs to be renewed in order to maintain an active status within a web directory is considered a renewal date. This may also refer to the date on which a domain must be renewed, although the latter is more often referred to as an expiration date.

Re-purposed Domain - A domain whose content has been deleted and new content uploaded is referred to as a re-purposed domain.

Reputation Management - Reputation management refers to a campaign or actions that are taken to ensure that brand-related keywords display results that reinforce the brand. Many hate sites tend to rank highly for brand-related queries. Sites that were developed for the purpose of voice complaints against a company may also rank highly in searches, particularly if the brand is included within the domain name.

Review - The evaluation or examination of a resource by an editor to determine its suitability and placement within a directory.

Reverse Index - A reverse index is an index of keywords that stores records of matching documents that contain those keywords.

Robots.txt - The robots.txt file is a text file that can be saved to a website's server. The robots.txt file determines when, if, and when a search engine spider can visit a website's subpages, and include them in the index. Certain pages of a website can be excluded from search results through the robots.txt file. Some search engines ignore robots.txt files however, so if it is desired to hide the contents of a subpage, it is more effective to password protect it.

Root Category - In a web directory, a root category may refer to the primary or top-level category that contains links to subcategories or subtopics. Generally, the root category itself contains few if any site listings.

RSS - Acronym for Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary. RSS is a commonly used protocol for syndication and sharing of content originally created for the syndication of news articles for a feed reader or other software that allows people to subscribe to a channel they are interested in.

Safari - Safari is a popular web browser for Mac computers.

SBD Directory Software - Free PHP-based web directory software/script.

Search Engine - A search engine is a website, such as Google or Bing, through which a user can search the contents of the Internet. In order to this, a user would enter search terms or keywords into the search field of the search engine. The search engine will then access its index for relevant websites, displaying them in the form of a list. The search engine's internal evaluation algorithm determines the position that a website will appear in the search engine results.

Search Engine Advertising - The primary business model of many search engines is to allow advertising on its search result pages. These ads do not generally appear in the natural search results. Rather, these sponsored results will appear above the natural results or to one side, usually the right, sometimes set apart in a box or by a different text color. Sponsored links are usually targeted to the keywords entered into the search field. Generally, the amount to be spend on such advertising can be adjusted for a number of factors, and the advertiser can determine whether the advertisement appears regionally or nationwide. The fee for search engine advertising is determined on a pay-for-click basis, and the higher the advertising budget, the better position the advertisement will get in a targeted search result. Search engine advertising can be useful in getting a new website off the ground or in promoting a short-term project or promotion.

Search Engine Friendly - A directory which does not restrict a search engine's access or indexability of their content and provides a direct link to the listed web sites.

Search Engine Guidelines - Most search engines will have guidelines in place that tell webmasters how to make it easier for the search engine to find and index its pages, and how to get as high up in the search engine results as possible. These guidelines will also warn of prohibited activities that may lead to penalties or exclusion from the search engine's index.

Search Engine History - Many search engines store user search information. This data can be used to better target advertisement, to make old information more findable, or even to bias search engine results that are displayed to a user. Search engines may also determine what a document is about and how much they trust a domain based on aggregate usage data. Brand-related search queries is a strong signal of quality.

Search Engine Marketing - Search engine marketing refers to the steps that are taken to better position a website in search engine results or to otherwise attract or direct visitors to the website being promoted. These may include search engine optimization, search engine advertising, and site placement in reputable web directories.

SEM - Acronym for Search Engine Marketing. See above.

Search Engine Optimization - Search engine optimization refers to the measures that are taken to improve a website's position in a search engine's natural search results for targeted keywords and keyphrases. Search engine optimization is not a one-time task; it requires experience, planning, and continual maintenance.

Search Engine Registration - Most search engines allow webmasters to register a website directly with the search engine, placing it in the queue for a visit by the search engine crawler. After registration, it can take several days or even weeks before the search engine crawler visits the site and determines whether or not to include it in the index of the search engine. In most cases, as long as your website is linked from one other site that is in the search engine's index, the web crawler will find the site eventually, even without registration.

Search Engine Spam - Search engine spam refers to steps that are taken to influence the position of a website in the search engine results. One example is an abnormally high number of incidents of the same keywords in a website's content and meta tags. When search engines have discovered search engine spam in the contents of a website, that site may be downgraded in the search results or even removed from the index altogether. Sometimes the difference between aggressive search engine optimization and search engine spam can be a delicate one.

Search Result - A search result is the list that is displayed by a search engine after a search is initiated by a user. These may include both natural and sponsored search results. Natural search results are more likely to be the most relevant to the searcher's query, although useful websites may also be discovered among sponsored results, which are paid advertisements targeted to specific keywords. Search engine results are displayed in pages, which are sometimes referred to as SERPs, or search engine result pages.

Search Term - Search terms are the primary words or phrases related to the content of the resource. Also known as a keyword or key phrase, a search term is what users of a search engine key into the search field when they are seeking something specific.

Seeding - Seeding refers to the act of adding listings to pre-populate categories of web directories. Reputable directories employ either paid or volunteer staff to add good quality listings to directory categories and subcategories in order that the directory might be useful to directory visitors and to prompt paid customers to want to have their website listed there as well. The term might also be used in reference to actions that may be taken in order to get conversations going on a new online forum. As users are generally not inclined to register or participate in a forum that no one else is participating in, a forum host will often create several usernames or have friends assist in beginning several conversations in the hope that others will join in.

SEO - Acronym for Search Engine Optimization. See above.

SEO Copywriting - SEO copywriting refers to writing and formatting copy in a manner that will make the documents appear relevant to a wide array of relevant search queries. One method of writing titles that are search engine friendly is to write literal titles that are well aligned with things that people who would be interested in your content are likely to search for. This works well if you need backfill content for your site, or already have an authoritative site. Another is to write page titles that are particularly compelling, so that people are more likely to link to them. If enough people link to your pages, your website will rank for relevant queries even if the keywords are not in the page titles.

SEO Moz - SEO Moz shows the importance of words or phrases in a web document, and which HTML components keywords show up in. It also has a tool that determines the relevance of a webpage, based on sampling. mozTrust compares how trustworthy a website is as compared to others. mozRank serves as an alternative to Google Page Rank.

SERP - Acronym for Search Engine Results Page. This is the page upon which the search engine will display the results of a particular query. Generally speaking, if a website does not appear in at least the first two pages of the SERPs for relevant keywords, searchers are not likely to find it.

Server - A server is a computer that is used to host files and serve them to the World Wide Web. The files that make up websites on the Internet are physically stored in servers.

Server Logs - Server logs are files hosted on servers that display website traffic trends and sources. Server logs generally do not show as much data an are not as user friendly as analytics software, and not all hosts provide access to server logs.

Siphoning - Siphoning refers to techniques that are used to steal traffic from another website. This may include the use of spyware or cybersquatting.

Sitemap - A sitemap is a protocol that allows webmasters to inform search engines about the URLs available for indexing within a web site. Often created as a sitemap.xml or sitemap.xml.gz file, the sitemap contains all of the subpages that belong to the website. These files help the search engines learn more about the structure of the website, which speeds up the crawl process and reduces the likelihood that the search engine spider will overlook subpages of the website.

Site Map - As opposed to a sitemap (above), a site map is often included as a subpage of a website, generally the last page in the site's navigation, comprising an alternative method of navigation. In large sites, a site map may include only the major subpages of the site while, on a small site, it may include every page. Many HTML editing programs are capable of automatically generating a site map. Site maps may also serve to redistribute internal link authority toward important pages or sections of the website.

Social Media - Websites that allow users to create and share personal content is referred to as social media. Some examples of well-known social media sites include Digg, Facebook, and MySpace.

Sorting Options - An option to control how the category listings are displayed. Popular options include popularity, PageRank or alphabetical.

Spam - Spam generally refers to unsolicited email messages. Search engines also like to outsource their relevancy issues by referring to low quality search results as spam. Generally, search engines attempt to avoid flagging false positives as spam, so their algorithms are usually lenient. As long as a webmaster can avoid building large amounts of low quality links, hosting duplicate content, or taking other actions that are considered outside the realm of a search engine's relevancy guidelines, a site is unlikely to be flagged as spam.

Spam Filter - Spam filters on email programs and in web directory software may automatically process, separate or delete unwanted submissions based on predefined criteria.

Spamming - Spamming is the act of creating and distributing spam.

Spiders - Also known as a crawler, a search engine spider is a program that search engines use to collect data from the Internet. When a spider accesses a website, it collects the website's textual contents and stores it in a database. A spider will also store all of the external and internal links to the website, and will later follow these links, eventually indexing every website that has links to at least one other website.

Spider Food - Spider food refers to content included in a website that will attract search engine spiders to index a website frequently. Search engine spiders collect words, so a website needs to include words for the spider to collect. Healthy spider food will include contextual content that will relate to the keywords that the site is optimized for.

Splash Page - Typically, a splash page is one that is graphics-heavy, and is an introductory page, intended to grab someone's attention. Eye candy, it is not rich in content.

Splog - Short for Spam Blog, which are blogs that usually contain little if any quality content, and area generally used to build links to other sites.

Sponsored Listing - In a web directory, a sponsored listing is an advertising option allowing a listing to appear at the top of a category for a defined period of time. It may also be known as category sponsorship or by some other term.

Spyware - Spyware refers to software programs that are intended to spy on web users, and which are often used to collect consumer research data and to deliver behaviorally targeted ads. Spyware is often disguised as, and may serve some other useful purpose, prompting a user to install it.

SSI - Acronym for Server Side Includes, which are a way to call portions of a page in from another page. SSI makes it easier to update websites. SSI is often used in conjunction with PHP or some other language that makes it easier to include files via SSI. Otherwise, when SSI is in use, file names will end in .shtml or .shtm unless the .htaccess file has been changed to make .html or .htm files be processed as though they were .shtml files.

Standard Listing - In a web directory, a standard listing is one that is given no special consideration and placed among other standard listings within a category. Often, sponsored listings are displayed ahead of standard listings.

Static Content - Static content may refer to content on an website that does not change often. It may also refer to content that does not have any social elements to it, and does not use dynamic programming languages. Static pages often do well on searches because of the length of time they have been included in the search engine indexes but fresh content pages should be added to a website in order to keep search engines and human visitors interested.

Statistics - Provides detailed information regarding the use of the directory including unique visitors, visits, duration, tracking or other data related to the use of the directory,

Status - Generally refers to the condition or state of categories and listings; pending, active or inactive. Also a sorting option for categories and listings in the admin interface.

  • 200 - Status Ok - Generally indicates that the file request was successful.
  • 301 - Moved Permanently - Indicates that the file has been moved permanently to a new location. This is the preferred method of redirection for most pages or websites.
  • 302 - Found - Indicates that the file has been found, but is temporarily located at another URI. For the purposes of search engine optimization, it is best to avoid 302 redirects, as some search engines have difficult handling such redirects.
  • 404 - Not Found - Means that the server was unable to locate the URL. Some content management systems send 404 status codes when documents actually do exist, so it is important to ensure that files that do exist give a 200 status code and that requests for files that do not exist give a 404 status code. Many web hosts will allow customers to set up custom 404 pages which can help visitors to access your site navigation, or to report navigation problems when they occur.

Subcategory - A subcategory is a child- or lower-level category in a web directory, belonging to that of the main or primary topic. In the example, Top > Regional > North America > United States, Regional is a child of Top, North America is the child of Regional, and United States is the child of North America.

Subcategory Preview - The subcategory preview is the number of subcategories listed or shown on the main page for each primary or top level category of a web directory. This number is usually adjustable by the administrator of the directory.

Submission Confirmation - A confirmation message sent to the submitter confirming the submission and outlining the submitted details.

Submission Fee - A submission fee is a demand for payment associated with the submission of a web site to a web directory. The fee may be for either the review and consideration of a submission, or the guaranteed inclusion of a submitted resource.

Submission Form - A form consisting of varying fields where a submitter can provide information related to their site for review or inclusion within a directory. Also provides information about varied submission options and possible fees.

Submission Service - A submission service is a third-party company or individual who performs the task of search engine or web directory submission. Often this service is advertised as being a manual service, but is usually accomplished through automated means. There are far more bad submission services than good, so it is far better to do the work yourself. When you come across an ad that promises to submit your website to 20,000 directories, of something of that sort, you can be sure that this is a bad submission service, as there aren't more than about ten to twenty directories worth submitting your site to, and most of them require the payment of a fee.

Subrion - Subrion is a web directory script owned by Intelliants, LLC.

SymLink - A link from within a category that points to related topics or categories within the web directory that may be useful for its users when navigating the directory. They are commonly referred to as @Links.

Taxonomy - Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. In a web directory, taxonomy refers to the method of categorization used by the directory.

Technorati - Technorati is a blog search engine.

Telnet - Telnet is an Internet service that allows a remote computer to log into a local one for projects such as script initialization or manipulation. Some old Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) are still in place, with a cult following, now generally accessed through Telnet services.

Template - A template refers to files which control the layout and visual style of a web directory, website, or forum. Web editors, forum software, and directory software often includes a number of templates that are pre-made, and can be easily used. Additionally, third-party templates are often available for popular softwares.

Text Link Ads - A text link ad is one that is formatted as a text link. People are more inclined to ignore graphic-based advertising on a website, so many ads are formed as text links. Google AdSense is most often displayed as a text ad, although graphical ads are also used.

Thumbnail Image - A thumbnail image is a reduced size image or snapshot of a listed resource usually included to provide a preview of the listed web site.

Title - The title is the general or descriptive heading for a web site listing in a web directory. Titles are usually the official name of the company or of the web site. On a web site, the title element is the one that is used to describe the contents of the document, and is usually the same as that which would be used as a title listing in a web directory, except that each subpage of a website should have a unique title. Titles should be unique to that page for SEO purposes. Titles should also be descriptive, and not overly long. Typically, titles should be no more than eight words.

TLD - Acronym for Top Level Domain, which is the right-hand portion of a complete domain name, often referred to as domain extensions. Common TLDs are .com, .net. and .org.

Toolbar - Many search engine companies attempt to gain a marketshare by distributing search toolbars, some of which include useful features, such as pop-up blockers, spell-checkers, and form auto-fill tools. These toolbars also track usage data.

Topical Category - The topical categories of a web directory are those categories that are sorted based on topic or subject rather than the geographical location.

Topical Relevance - With respect to search engines, topical relevance generally involves the number of incoming links (backlinks) that a website has, and an evaluation of the quality of these links. Websites that contain similar content are said to have topical relevance, and will have more of an impact on the website's position in search results than will backlinks from an unrelated website. For example, let's assume that you are engaged in the selling of blue widgets. Let's further consider that there are three backlinks pointing to your blue widget site. One of them is from a manufacturer of blue widgets; another is from a website selling green widgets; and the last is from the website of a car dealership whose owner added a link to your site because he was dating your daughter. I have listed these in the order of topical relevance, from the highest to the lowest. Neither will harm your standings in the search engine results, but the link from the manufacturer of the exact same product that you are selling will have the highest topical relevancy.

TOS - Acronym for Terms of Service. The TOS covers a range of issues, including the rules setting out the basic rights and responsibilities of the company and their customers, or the acceptable user behavior. Terms of Service are generally used only on websites that include interactivity, such as web directories, forums, or social media.

Typepad - Typepad is a hosted blogging platform.

Update - Search engines frequently update their algorithms and data sets in order to keep their search engine results fresh, to improve their relevancy, and to prevent search engine optimizers from figuring out their algorithms. Most major search engines are continually updating both their relevancy algorithms and their search index.

URL - Acronym for Uniform Resource Locator. A URL is the web address of a document on the Internet.

Usability - Usability refers to how easy it is for customers to perform a desired action. The structure and formatting of text and hyperlink-based calls to action can increase a website's usability, and an intuitive taxonomy (category structure) can improve the usability of a web directory.

Usenet - Usenet is a worldwide distributed Internet discussion system that was developed from the general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. On Usenet, users read and post messages that are referred to as articles or posts, and collectively termed news, to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet is very similar to a bulletin board system in some respects, and is the precursor to the Internet forums that are in use today. Usenet might be viewed as a cross between email and an Internet forum.

Vanity Domain - A vanity domain is a secondary web site that is usually marketed for its keyword-rich domain name. A vanity domain may also refer to a domain name that is comprised of an individual's name,

Vertical Search - A vertical search is a search service that is focused on a particular field, a particular type of information, or information format.

Viral Marketing - Viral marketing refers to self-propagating marketing techniques, which may involve email, blogging, social networks, or word-of-mouth marketing channels.

Virtual Domain - A virtual domain is a website hosted on a virtual server.

Virtual Server - A virtual server allows multiple top-level domains to be hosted on a single computer. Probably, most websites on the Internet are hosted on virtual servers, as they are inexpensive, and sufficient for small to medium websites. However, dedicated servers provide for greater reliability, but at a cost.

Volunteer Edited - a web directory that is edited and maintained by a volunteer staff of editors is often heralded as a volunteer edited directory. The Open Directory Project was the first large-scale project of this nature.

W3 - An abbreviation for World Wide Web.

Web Crawler - A web crawler is more commonly known as a search engine spider. Webcrawler was one of the largest search engines, although it now serves as a metasearch engine, using results from Google and Yahoo! Search.

Web Directory - A web directory contains lists of linked Internet addresses that are generally categorized according to specific criteria, such as by topic, industry, or geographical location. Web directories help users search for information in a more targeted way. Before the emergence of search engines, web directories were the only way that a user could easily find the information he or she was looking for on the Internet. While they are less used for these purposes today, some of the better ones are still of use. From the perspective of search engine optimization, a link in a web directory can be useful in optimizing a website's position in search engine results, as it serves as an additional backlink.

Web Page - A web page (webpage) refers to a single document (page) from within a web site. When a valid Internet address is entered into a web browser, a web page will appear, generally the main (index) page of the website being accessed, sometimes referred to as the homepage, while the other pages on the website are referred to as subpages. A web page is a single, individual page on the Internet.

Website - A website is a collection of web pages or documents, images and other multimedia located under a single domain. A website is generally comprised of several web pages linked together by a common navigation, which may be in an navigation bar or textual links, usually at the top of the page, in the left margin or, less often, in the right margin of the index page.

Website Structure - A website's structure refers to how the website is set up, and how the individual subpages are linked to one another. It is important that both human visitors to the site and search engine spiders be able to easily access the subpages of the website. Smaller websites may have have a flat structure, where all of the pages of the site are on the same level, while larger sites often have a stacked structure, where it is necessary for a user to click down in order to access what may be several levels of subpages.

Whois - Each web domain has an owner of record. Ownership data is stored in the Whois record for that domain, although some registrars allow ownership data to be hidden, and wide-scale spammers may even use fake Whois data.

Wiki - A wiki is software that allows information to be published via collaborative editing.

Wikipedia - Wikipedia is a free online collaborative encyclopedia that uses wiki software.

Wordpress - Wordpress is a popular open source blogging software that offers both a downloadable blogging program as well as a hosted program. One consideration is that, if you are serious about building a brand or making money online, you should publish your content on your own domain. It can be difficult to reclaim a website's link equity and age-related trust if you have spent years building it up in a subdomain on someone else's site.

World Category - In a web directory, categories of regional or geographical listings in languages other than English are commonly referred to as a World category.

WWW - World Wide Web; referred to as the collection of interlinked resources featuring text, images, videos, and other multimedia on the Internet accessible via a web browser.

XHTML - Acronym for Extensible HyperText Markup Language, and is a class of specifications designed to extend the capabilities of HTML, the language in which webpages are written. XHTML is an application of XML, which is itself a more restrictive subset of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language).

XML - Acronym for Extensible Markup Language, which is a flexible file/document format used for sharing of structured data. XML is commonly used to create sitemaps for a web site, and is also used in order to make it easy to syndicate or format information technologies such as RSS.

Yahoo! - Yahoo! is a search engine, and the first large-scale directory of the Internet. The Yahoo search engine is now augmented by Google results, and its directory offers both standard (free) and annual fee-based submission options.

YouTube - YouTube is a popular video upload and syndication website now owned by Google.

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